“Schlaglicht Israel” offers an insight into internal Israeli debates and reflects selected, political events that affect daily life in Israel. It appears every two weeks and summarizes articles that appeared in the Israeli daily press.
Main Topics covered in this publication:
- Netanyahu’s statements about ethnic cleansing in the West Bank
- Traffic Chaos due to stop in Construction work on train system
- Collapse of an Underground Parking
- Selection of Articles
With ‘ethnic cleansing’ video, Netanyahu serves no one but himself
(…) There is no evacuation of West Bank settlements on the horizon; the future of the settlements isn’t even on the national agenda. So one wonders why Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu initiated a public, political and diplomatic discussion of this issue (…) Netanyahu knew and apparently wanted his remarks to spark a storm. (…) Polls show the public is losing confidence in Netanyahu (…) the Palestinian refusal to allow enclaves of Israelis – not “Jews” – in their sovereign state is neither ethnic nor cleansing. As a member of Ariel Sharon’s government, Netanyahu supported the “cleansing” of the Gaza Strip of its settlers, and the Likud movement he heads evacuated settlers from Sinai in return for a peace treaty with Egypt. Netanyahu’s demagoguery is not only problematic on grounds of morality and decency; it is damaging to Israel. It identifies the entire State of Israel with the occupation, undermines its legitimacy and solidifies the notion of a binational state. (…) Once again he is acting like a politician and not a statesman, putting political considerations over what’s best for the State of Israel.
Editorial, HAA, 12.09.2016
(…) Jewish communities (…) should be removed not because Jews’ unalterable ethnic affiliation disqualifies them to live in this geographic area, rather because the legacy of the conflict makes it impossible for the two peoples to live together right now. It is, therefore, better to separate the two peoples in the short term. The US position – shared by a large swath of the international community – should not be confused with support for ethnic cleansing of Jews. The idea that Israelis and Palestinians cannot live with one another and therefore must be separated underlies the reasoning of the two-state solution. Zionist political parties that support such a solution – such as Labor and Meretz, and even Netanyahu according to his famous Bar-Ilan speech in 2009 – believe that peace is worth the heavy price of uprooting Jewish settlements. They also believe that maintaining control over Judea and Samaria with its large Palestinian population for the sake of the settlements undermines Israel’s standing as a democracy. (…) Whether the dismantling of settlements is ultimately needed to obtain a peace deal with the Palestinians remains to be seen. (…) At the same time, the US – alongside the Israeli political parties on the Left that support a two-state solution – should not be accused of advocating ethnic cleansing. Making such a charge is unfair and unhelpful diplomacy, particularly when the accused party is Israel’s most important and strongest ally.
Editorial, JPO, 11.09.16
Bibi at his best
(…) Bibi at his best. (…) Bibi who shoots the truth and infiltrates minds and hearts. Supporting the two-state idea means supporting ethnic cleansing. The vision of two states for two people, which US President Barack Obama has made such an effort to advance, includes the creation of a “judenrein” area. That’s what you call a territory where no Jew can set foot. (…) The language laundering cannot blur reality. We have already met this reality in the horrible injustice of expelling 5,000 Jews from Gush Katif and turning Gaza into a place where no Jew can set foot.
Whoever supports the idea of evacuating my five children, a third generation in Ofra, from their home, supports a criminal act. (…) Any place Israel has withdrawn from, allowing the Palestinians to control it, has become a place Jews should not enter. Every day I pass by a sign – white letters on a bright red background – warning Jews not to enter Area A. (…) Every day hundreds of thousands of Palestinians come to work in Israel, and every Friday thousands of Palestinians are allowed to enter the Temple Mount. (…) under Israeli rule there is coexistence, and under the rule of Ismail Haniyeh and Mahmoud Abbas there is a duel. I believe the conflict in the Middle East can be solved and that days of peace will arrive, but real peace cannot be based on a transfer, neither of Arabs nor of Jews.
Yifat Erlich, JED, 11.09.16
Netanyahu’s new clothes
(…) Our prime minister is no emperor, and he does not need a tailor either. He weaves his new clothes on his own. (…) Benjamin Netanyahu is denouncing the Palestinian Authority for refusal to allow Jews to settle within its boundaries. “It’s ethnic cleansing,” he rules. (…) In this case, there is no need to shout, “The Emperor has no clothes.” Netanyahu is no fool: He knows the speech presents him in his nakedness. But these are not easy times, and sometimes one must do unusual things. Any headline, just not (…) about an indictment in the prime minister’s homes affair, about flights and gifts and benefits. (…) Anything, just not the investigations. The West Bank is an occupied territory. (…) At no stage did Jews agree to live under Arab sovereignty, neither in Taba and Sinai nor in the ongoing negotiations about the fate of Gaza and the West Bank. (…) The settlements were created for Jews only. Palestinians were not allowed to live in them, or in the cities that were founded. Some were built on private lands, and others were built and are being built today with one goal: To thwart the establishment of a Palestinian state. (…) People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones. (…)
Nahum Barnea, JED, 11.09.16
Netanyahu’s claim of ‘ethnic cleansing’ sets a Guinness record for chutzpah
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s (…) demand for the evacuation of Jewish settlements from the West Bank constitutes “ethnic cleansing” belongs in the same league as “Arabs are coming to vote in droves” and “the Mufti persuaded Hitler to exterminate the Jews.” (…) He wanted to divert the public agenda from the recent crisis over railroad construction on Shabbat (…). He is distracting attention from the ongoing police investigation of potential corruption charges. (…) Netanyahu apparently thinks that Abbas and the Palestinians are all potential ethnic cleansers, along with (…) Ariel Sharon, who removed settlements during the Gaza disengagement (…). Netanyahu asserts in his video that the nearly two million Arabs in Israel are living proof that there is no need to remove Jews from Judea and Samaria in order to achieve peace. Does Netanyahu mean that Jewish settlers will become Palestinian citizens, pay taxes to the government in East Jerusalem or Ramallah or that their children will sing, “Palestine is my revenge and the land of steadfastness” from the PLO anthem? Of course not. In his vision of peace, the Jewish settlers will continue to be Israeli citizens (…) Netanyahu’s statement only damages Israel’s image abroad and portrays it as more obstinate and hard line than it really is. (…)
Chemi Shalev, HAA, 10.09.16
Netanyahu’s ‘ethnic cleansing’ gimmick
Removing Jewish settlers from the occupied territories is never “ethnic cleansing.” It is justice being served, albeit long, long delayed. (…) The settlements were illegal and will continue to remain so. Time won’t change this reality. As a matter of fact, the mere presence of Israelis in Palestine is a form of colonialism. (…) There is no end to this conflict between Palestinians and Israelis without the creation of the independent State of Palestine (…). However, because of the complexities of evacuating close to half a million settlers in the West Bank, the Palestinian leadership has accepted the notion of minimal and agreed-upon land swaps under which major settlement blocs, where some 80 percent of the settlers live, would remain under Israeli sovereignty. (…) Jewish settlers who opt to stay in Palestine will have to apply for permanent residence status. Those found fit to stay would be accorded the required permits. Those who aren’t will have to leave. (…) For those serious in reaching a peace agreement with the Palestinians, settlements and settlers are the least complicated of all core issues. (…) The settlers are an Israeli problem and it is the duty of Israel to solve that problem. We, the Palestinians, were never part of this problem, and cannot be expected to be more Israeli than Netanyahu. Removing Jewish settlers from the occupied territories is never “ethnic cleansing.” It is justice.
Elias Zananiri, JPO, 13.09.16
Netanyahu is trying to get rid of Katz
Someone needs to be held accountable and pay the price for the colossal damage—no less—done to a large part of the public, who spent its Saturday night and Sunday morning stuck in traffic. (…) It’s all politics—pathetic, petty, interest-based, self-centered politics. There’s a power struggle here, a fight over authority and credit. This is something that in a normal country would not have affected the operations of the train system. (…) Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu accused Transportation Minister Yisrael Katz of holding an entire public hostage, of trying to mount a putsch and dismantle the coalition—all sorts of things. But (…): Where is the prime minister? (…) The escalation of the conflict with Katz and the strange statements coming out of the PMO (…) were all meant to draw fire away from the fact the prime minister completely capitulated to the ultra-Orthodox parties. (…) Netanyahu managed to get in trouble with both sides: The ultra-Orthodox and the general public. He did what no one before him had done—force the ultra-Orthodox, who normally look the other way and accept the situation as it is, to oppose something that has been working fine for years now. It’s as if he forced open Litzman, Gafni and Deri’s eyes, making them see what they didn’t want to see, while telling them: ‘Look, can’t you see? They’re working on Shabbat. (…) Netanyahu’s problem is that Katz is not just any other minister. (…) He won’t quit politics and wait on the sidelines for the right moment to return to center stage. He’ll stay close. Close enough to breathe down Netanyahu’s neck. (…)
Sima Kadmon, JED, 04.09.16
Don’t blame Bibi for Israel’s paralyzed trains, it was the Haredi social media
(…) It’s a lose-lose situation for the two main players involved. The ultra-orthodox parties have no interest in a coalition crisis, much less in the government collapsing. (…) As for Netanyahu, he’s the last person in the world to want to foment trouble, especially of this sort. (…) But his decision to bar maintenance works on the tracks over Shabbat causes pain and grief to the average Israeli voter trying to get to work (…). Infrastructure work on Shabbat, like the kind on the railroads, has been done for decades without attracting the wrath of the Haredi parties. (…) But (…) the issue on the railroad works on Shabbat surfaced in the Haredi social media (…). Eventually the fuss found its way on to mainstream ultra-Orthodox websites like Kikar Shabbat, where Haredi leaders were lambasted for surrendering principles for politics. Politicians from United Torah Judaism and Shas had to act, or risk looking indifferent to Shabbat desecration. (…) It was social media that got the cottage cheese protests going five years ago (…). Some laud this new set of relations between the people and the powerful as a great advance for democracy. (…) This is all poppycock. The “people” of the social media aren’t representative of public opinion and aren’t necessarily looking out for the public’s interests. They are a constituency in and of themselves. (…) Life is going to be harder for Bibi and the rest of Israel.
David Rosenberg, HAA, 04.09.16
Stuck in the middle
(…) at the moment a war is the last thing the haredim want. (…) Last week, the haredi MKs were under the gun. Journalists from the haredi press were sticking it to them, and rabbis were demanding explanations. They tried to find a middle ground. They raised their voices in protest, calmed down, and calmed others thanks to the establishment of a committee in which they would participate. The war is not good for the haredim. (…) The haredim feel as though they have been in a train wreck. One train left Transportation Minister Yisrael Katz’s office, and another left from the Prime Minister’s Office. Both are carrying a full load of anger about internal party affairs. And the haredim? They got stuck on the tracks.
Yehuda Shlezinger, IHY, 04.09.16
The status quo is dead
For decades, millions of Israelis have been rotting in their homes every Shabbat. These are mainly the weaker people(…) who are consistently screwed by all Israeli governments (…). They can’t visit their parents, take their child to a soccer game or just go to the beach for a breath of fresh air. They have no way to get there. (…) the status quo is dead. (…) The absurdity of a modern state without public transportation on the days of leisure—Shabbat and Jewish holidays—is breathing its last. (…) One can wrinkle one’s nose, but on Shabbat the Israeli family wants to watch a bad Hollywood movie, grab a greasy hamburger and buy an ugly doll on the way. The religion of consumption and capitalism are crushing ancient ideologies. (…) The Orthodox minority should have joined the majority and reality in reshaping the coexistence, instead of sticking to lost battles from the previous millennium. (…) very soon, all this will sound real funny, certainly to your children. Until then, millions will continue to rot every Shabbat.
Yehuda Nuriel, JED, 08.09.16
Shabbat is in the nation’s blood
(…) the secular Israeli media is still hammering away at the prime minister, simply because he put his foot down and issued orders to take the side of the ultra-Orthodox parties and prevent the desecration of Shabbat — one of the signature characteristics of a Jewish state. (…) these attacks are one of the reasons for the sense that the current crisis over railway work and the antagonistic atmosphere are a product of politics, not values. Because if we were facing a crisis of values, no thinking person who cares about a Jewish state would dare consider desecrating Shabbat in the slightest, because any attack on Shabbat is a direct attack on us as a Jewish state. The opinion that the status quo (…) should not be eroded is not just a haredi-religious interest, but the interest of every Jew who lives in this country. Shabbat belongs to all of us, and the most important goal is for us to preserve what we have and not become just another Middle Eastern country in which politicians and citizens conduct themselves without any guiding principles or values. (…) Would a Muslim regime ever desecrate the holy month of Ramadan or would a Christian country ever desecrate Christmas? This is a Jewish state and we must act like it. (…) In reality, the haredim have quietly accepted certain violations of the Sabbath for years. Only recently, the Economy Ministry published information about 400 businesses that operate on Shabbat, and the haredim were quiet, because we have no interest in interfering with Israeli public policy. (…) There is nothing to do but hope that the Israeli public is wise enough to unite and prevent superfluous wars, and make peace with the Jewish nature of the state.
Zvika Gronich, IHY, 05.09.2016
Shabbat cannot be a political chess piece
(…) Shabbat is (…) not simply another Torah commandment, but offers a much needed escape from the weekly rigors of life and thus inspires both our body and soul. It is therefore an aspect of Jewish practice which every Jew should strive to protect, both because we are commanded to do so AND because it is good for us. (…) I can appreciate the position of many in contemporary Israel who find yesterday’s situation, which inconvenienced tens of thousands of people, to be bewildering. (…) For many Israelis who might define themselves as secular, yet share my passion for the ideal that is Shabbat, there is no doubt that this weekend’s developments will lead them further astray from tradition. And this is the ultimate tragedy of these developments. (…) Rather than wait for the next sparks to fly when these questions again rise to the fore of public debate, let us convene now, Jewish religious leaders of all persuasions and backgrounds and create a common language of what Shabbat is about in the modern State of Israel. Consideration should be given first and foremost to Halacha but ALSO to the real challenges of a society where not everyone shares a common view on what is Shabbat observance and its place in our lives. (…)
David Stav, TOI, 05.09.16
Parking lot disaster reminds Israelis they are Screw-Up Nation as well
(…) the loss of human life (…) isn’t the only and possibly isn’t even the main reason for the national fixation. (…) the country seems to be gripped by a gnawing sense that this was no accident at all, but a recurring symptom of a national malaise. (…)The same accident could have taken place when the parking lot was already operational and 300 cars were trapped inside, many people thought to themselves. Then their minds wandered to the parking lots at their own places of work and from there to their apartments and homes (…). accidents such as these don’t often strike such a raw national nerve as they do in Israel. At times like these, many Israelis suspect that they are not only a start-up nation but a screw-up nation as well.(…) The atmosphere of hafif (carelessness) includes many sectors in Israel, not just the army. It devours us. (…) This is the flip side, if not the dark side, of the Israeli attributes of creativeness and improvisation that win its battles and propel its programmers and engineers to the forefront of the hi-tech industry. (…) Israelis recognize this happy-go-lucky, devil-may-care attitude in themselves, and are usually quite proud of it. They tend to look down on play-by-the rules Americans, stickler-for-details Germans, hoity-toity Brits and other disciplined nations. But every once in a while a nasty reminder comes along that improvisation, cutting corners and ad-libbing exact a price, and it can be deadly. In such moments, Israelis swell with righteous indignation, swear to change their slapdash ways, but then something else inevitably comes along, and they forget, until the next catastrophe.
Chemi Shalev, HAA, 06.09.16
Construction industry in dire need of reform
(…) This industry has had issues with defective structures for decades. (…) The only way to avoid these incidents is to invest much more in prevention and inspection during the construction process. (…) there is research proving that for each voluntary shekel spent to ensure higher quality, one saves 6 shekels on the costs that result from poor quality construction. (…) At a typical construction site, there is a supervisor, for whom a large part of the job is safety. (…) He doesn’t want to be caught on any obvious issues. For the most part, even this kind of safety monitoring is subpar, and there are not enough people dealing with safety on site. At the end of the day, a single person is saddled with the responsibility, but is unable to handle the task properly. There are two main ways to fix this: training and education, guidelines and proactive care; and a significant increase in enforcement. Ideally, both methods would be used — the carrot and the stick. (…) the construction industry must undergo the revolutionary change of true and honest investment in the two very important fields of safety and quality
Prof. Yehiel Rosenfeld, IHY, 06.09.16
Israel’s construction accidents are the result of willful ignorance
Half of the fatalities in workplace accidents in Israel are construction workers. In the past decade there were around 325 such deaths, in addition to some 10,000 people with serious injuries. (…) This is not just negligence, but rather turning a criminally blind eye. (…) It’s hard to escape the feeling that the origin of the workers, most of whom are non-Jews, saps the motivation to fight the phenomenon. Three-quarters of the workers killed on construction sites in the past five year were Palestinians, Israeli Arabs or foreign nationals. (…) Poor inspection is only one link in a chain of failures that includes incomplete investigations by the police and the administration of fatal accidents, a paucity of prosecutions for negligent manslaughter, and relatively light punishments together with the limited imposition of administrative fines on construction companies. The fact that over the past decade, not one contractor who had workers killed or injured on the job had his license suspended shows the extent of the government’s weakness in dealing with the problem. (…) The disaster at Ramat Hahayal proves how critical it is for the authorities to change the norms governing safety in the construction industry.
Editorial, HAA, 07.09.16
Don’t wait for the next disaster
(…) Despite so many families being destroyed and others losing their means of financial support, all the branches and institutions of the state have ignored the matter. In effect, no one is currently in charge of the construction sector in Israel. (…) Since the beginning of 2016, 32 workers have been killed in construction site accidents, but no criminal indictment has been filed for any of these deaths or for any injuries at any construction site. Only three indictments were filed in 2015, and not one resulted in a conviction. (…) When a building violation takes place at a construction site, it in effect becomes a crime scene, and if the work continues, evidence will almost certainly be damaged (…). We should expect the same kind of response that the IDF issues — an announcement of a halt to all construction nationwide. (…) Most importantly, all the parking lots that were built by the planners and contractors responsible for the parking structure that collapsed in Tel Aviv should be closed down and not reopened for public use until a certified professional attests to their stability. That didn’t happen and won’t happen. (…) The urgent tasks of ensuring working conditions and protection of construction workers, creating a single set of safety standards for construction companies, and creating legislation that will require a structural engineer to test a building’s stability before the project is handed over, will wait for the next catastrophe. (…)
Liad Ortar, IHY, 07.09.16
No time for hate
(…) amid all the expected good wishes, social media also carried an outpouring of meanness, loathing and mindless hatred toward the great leader(…). The psychological term schadenfreude refers to a feeling of pleasure that some people have when bad things happen to someone else; in other words taking delight in another person’s misfortune. (…) Since Peres’s stroke, social media have been deluged with messages of clueless, gloating opprobrium. (…) The longest serving of all of Israel’s leaders, Peres completed his seven-year term as president just two weeks shy of his 91st birthday, but he never retired, representing Israel as a Nobel Peace Prize laureate and establishing the Peres Center for Peace. His career mirrors the course of Israeli history since before the state was created. (…)
Editorial, JPO, 14.09.16
Beginn des neuen Schuljahrs
Don’t solely blame the government for educational inequality in Israel
(…) The inequality between the peripheral areas and the center of the country — which is expressed by the number of students scoring highly in their matriculation exams — is unbearable and should be fixed immediately. And if it requires additional funds for the periphery and poorer neighborhoods, the budgets should be amended now — at the expense of the stronger local governments in the center of Israel. (…) The terms “periphery” and “center,” which Kahlon used in an argument this week with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, conceal two other, much more loaded terms: “Mizrahim” (…) and “Ashkenazim” (…). (…) we must change how we allocate our budgets, in favor of the outlying areas and poorer neighborhoods. But it’s wrong to only target the government here; it’s too easy to blame the budget alone for the situation. In education, money is not everything. Take, for example, the immigrants who move to the United States without anything and work so hard, just in order to provide their children with an excellent education. I mean Israelis, Indians, Vietnamese and Chinese, who now occupy the highest spots at the top U.S. universities. It’s not only the government that is culpable for the gaps in our education system. Every one of us, parents and children together, has a responsibility for our own personal situation. (…)
Nehemia Shtrasler, HAA, 01.09.16
Different paths, shared hope
(…) A great responsibility lies on the teachers’ shoulders, who will welcome the children of Israel to their classrooms, our future generation of citizens. This responsibility is also an immense privilege. In their hands, with their spirit and words, teachers wield enormous power. Teachers play a vital role in the process of molding the minds of our children, the consciousness of the adults they will become and of the country they will one day lead. (…) Our system is divided into four unique movements. But with these differences and distinctions, the teachers’ job is to function as a bridge between the various sectors. They must provide the tools and the abilities, minimize the alienation and hostility and cultivate the skills that will allow the students to come together in the future. (…) The children who will make their way to school this morning, for the first day of kindergarten or a new grade, are the future of Israeli society. They march to class as individuals, but the excitement over the new school year is something they all share. This combination of our students and teachers, the excellent professionals in whose hands we put our faith, is the source of our hope for a promising future. (…)
President Reuven Rivlin, IHY, 01.09.16
Civil war on the horizon?
Tamir Pardo, the former head of the Mossad, kicked up a storm (…) when he chose (…) to warn that Israel could descend into civil war. (…) As a former head of the Mossad, Pardo is in a good position to assess external threats to Israel. (…) But civil war? (…) Does Pardo know something that the rest of us don’t (…)? Talk of civil war is about as old as the state, but it didn’t happen when Israel pulled out of Sinai, it didn’t happen in the disengagement from Gaza, it didn’t happen at the demolition of Amona. Those events, which had the potential to split Israeli society, passed pretty much without violence despite all the strains. (…) it’s time for public figures to adopt a responsible and rational discourse that doesn’t resort to apocalyptic rhetoric at every opportunity. (…)
Ilan Evyatar, JPO, 01.09.16
The ‘natural’ excuse for Israeli racial profiling
(…) Police Commissioner Roni Alsheich shocked an audience of lawyers when he excused racial profiling by police. (…) the conclusion was that Ethiopians are more likely to be recent immigrants, so they are more likely to be criminals, so the police will treat them like criminals when interacting with them. The audience shouldn’t have been shocked. Official racial profiling has existed in Israel for years against the Arab community, particularly at airport security. (…) THE MYTH that Ethiopian Jews or Arabs or young immigrants are more likely to be criminals is largely a self-fulfilling prophecy. Since its foundation, Israel’s elites have crafted a narrative whereby those “sabras” from Europe define themselves as positive contributors to the country and view immigrants and Arabs as the quintessential “other.” In the 1950s they claimed that criminality was concentrated among Moroccan immigrants, as a way to stereotype and stigmatize them and excuse removing them from the center, forcibly settling them in development towns in the periphery. When Russians came, they were also stereotyped as criminals. (…) The only real “crime” is the racism against immigrants, not the immigrants themselves. They wanted to come to a Jewish country. Instead of being welcomed, an intellectual crime has been committed against them, portraying them with negative stereotypes. Ethiopian Jews who came to Israel were not criminals. (…) But in Israel, a socialization process has taken place in which Ethiopians have been shoehorned into a vicious cycle of poverty and alleged criminality. (…) poverty is an indicator of criminality, more than race or religion. (…) Smart police work doesn’t involve castigating a whole community as suspicious, it involves educating police not to be naturally suspicious. Being able to identify men about to break into a house is important, not simply looking for every dark-skinned face and rounding them up. Racial profiling is the easy way to cast a wide net when people don’t want to investigate crime. (…)
Seth J. Frantzman, JPO, 03.09.16
One accident, multiple casualties
Only rarely does an accident undo scientific progress. The explosion at the SpaceX launch pad at Cape Canaveral, Florida (…) was one such accident. (…) The explosion is a crushing blow to the Israeli satellite industry, and especially to the Israel Aerospace Industries. (…) The satellite on the Falcon 9 rocket payload, the Amos-6, was the IAI’s crown jewel. It was the largest, most sophisticated and most advanced satellite it ever built. (…) Watching it go up in flames on the launch pad must have been heart-wrenching for all those involved. (…) It will take years before the IAI can build another satellite, and it is unclear whether anyone would be willing to commission another such satellite. (…) The SpaceX rocket that was to deliver Amos-6 to space is the world’s first reusable satellite launch vehicle. (…) The explosion will be heard around the world. Confidence in advanced technology will be shaken, and as a consequence, development will slow, and there will be a delay in connecting large swaths of Africa to the internet. Meanwhile, in Israel, one of the most advanced industries could go under.
Aharon Lapidot, IHY, 02.09.16
HAA = Haaretz
JED = JediothAhronoth / Ynetnews
JPO = Jerusalem Post
IHY = Israel HaYom
TOI = Times of Israel
GLO = Globes
Published: September 2016
Dr. Werner Puschra, Director, Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Israel